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Genre et changement climatique au Burundi

vendredi 10 avril 2015, par Genre en Action

Au Burundi, 97,4% des femmes en âge d’activité exercent dans le domaine agricole, activité dominante de l’économie burundaise. Cependant, les femmes ne sont pas propriétaires des terres, n’ont pas accès au contrôle des bénéfices, ni ne peuvent décider de leur utilisation. Dès lors, comment peuvent-elles affronter les effets du changement climatique ?

Par le Burundian Panafrican Movement

Pendant plus d’une décennie, le Burundi a connu une crise sociale et politico-militaire avec des conséquences désastreuses sur la population, en particulier sur les couches vulnérables (femmes, enfants, handicapés, minorités ethniques).

Les impacts de cette situation sur les rapports entre hommes et femmes sont entre autre le développement de la violence basée sur le genre, l’augmentation du nombre de femmes chefs de ménage, la pauvreté, les déplacements massifs et forcés des populations vers les camps de réfugiés, les problèmes de santé avec une féminisation du VIH/Sida et l’exacerbation des violations des droits humains

Au Burundi, les femmes fournissent l’essentiel de la force de production dans le secteur de l’agriculture : 97,4% des femmes en âge d’activité exercent dans ce secteur qui reste l’activité dominante de l’économie burundaise. Cependant, les femmes n’ont ni accès au contrôle des bénéfices, ni pouvoir de décider de leur utilisation.

Le Burundi est très vulnérable aux changements climatiques et présente une maigre capacité d’adaptation compte tenu de sa situation socioéconomique précaire, surtout pour un pays qui sort de plus d’une décennie de guerre civile.

Les stratégies en matière de sécurité alimentaire nécessitent d’utiliser à la fois les approches différentes, notamment l’amélioration de la gestion des réserves alimentaires et des systèmes efficaces d’information commerciale et d’alerte précoce, de suivi et de distribution.

Les femmes rurales burundaises, menacées par les inégalités basées sur le genre et occupant une place extrêmement importance dans le domaine agricole, deviennent les premières victimes des effets du changement climatique. Baisse de la production, pertes en vies humaines, inondations répétitives et glissements de terrains constituent autant de conséquences néfastes enregistrées au Burundi suite aux perturbations climatiques de ces dernières années.

L’objectif global de l’étude proposée par le Burundian Panafrican Movement est de contribuer à la réduction de la pauvreté et de la vulnérabilité chez les femmes du groupe d’impact par une identification des secteurs clés en politiques et lois sur lesquelles le Burundian Panafrican Movement voudrait orienter un plaidoyer effectif à court, moyen et à long terme.

Burundian Panafrican Movement "BPM"

Le Burundian Panafrican Movement est une Organisation panafricaine qui lutte pour le developpement en Afrique, sur le plan économique, social et culturel.

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    After 10 years, the iPhone’s charging port .
    The European Union has deemed USB-C to be the universal charging standard in the region, meaning all
    new phones launching in Europe in 2024. The decision had already fueled speculation about Apple’s switch to USB-C,
    but the company confirmed as much in a recent interview at the 
    "We have no choice — as we do around the world, [Apple will] comply with local laws," , Apple’s senior vice president of
    worldwide marketing, said during the interview.
    "We think it would have been better environmentally and better for our customers to not have a government be that prescriptive."

    But switching
    to USB-C isn’t Apple’s only option. What if Apple released a new iPhone ?

    That may sound
    unreasonable, but hear me out. Consider the iPhone’s trajectory
    when it comes to wireless functionality, and it seems like Apple has been gradually laying the foundation for a completely wireless
    iPhone. The success of and Apple’s focus on new types of cable-free connections
    like all point in that direction. 

    Moving toward an iPhone with no physical ports would also build on the vision Apple laid out six years
    ago when it announced , which was the first model without a headphone jack.
    Apple Fellow Phil Schiller, who previously served as senior vice president of worldwide marketing, said,
    "It makes no sense to tether ourselves with cables to our mobile devices," as
    he explained the iPhone’s shift away from the standard headphone jack.

    (Apple also introduced the first-generation AirPods
    during the same presentation.)

    There’s no telling whether Apple will make a change as drastic as eliminating the charging port altogether.
    Based on Joswiak’s comments at WSJ Tech Live, it sounds like Apple will indeed switch to USB-C rather than moving
    toward a completely cable-free design. There are good
    reasons why : Apple would undoubtedly face backlash in doing so.
    Plus, technical limitations could prevent wireless charging from
    being a feasible full-time alternative to wired charging.
    But the EU’s new rules, such as and improvements in wireless protocols certainly make the case
    for a port-free iPhone stronger than ever.

    An iPhone 7 Plus with Apple’s Lightning port sits atop a Google Pixel 2 XL with USB-C port.
    Stephen Shankland/CNET
    Will Apple release a completely wireless iPhone ?
    Apple never discusses upcoming products before it’s ready to unveil them, so it’s impossible to know exactly what’s in store for
    the iPhone’s future. But previous reports and patent filings suggest Apple may have at least considered how
    a truly wireless iPhone would work.

    For example,
    an filed in 2019 describes an iPhone with an enclosure made entirely of glass that can be charged wireless through its display.
    Apple has also filed other patents related
    to wireless charging that would further the case for a port-free
    iPhone, should the technologies ever see the light of day. One such patent covers
    built directly into the keyboard deck, an addition that could make wireless charging more convenient. 

    But a research note
    from TF International Securities analyst Ming-Chi Kuo, an industry observer known for his Apple predictions, called attention to the idea
    of a portless iPhone in 2019. Back then, Kuo said Apple
    could nix the Lightning port from its high-end iPhone in 2021, according to reports from , and .
    Bloomberg in May that Apple has worked on iPhone models without charging ports in recent years. 

    However,
    Kuo’s prediction didn’t end up coming to fruition. Every model in the iPhone 14 lineup has a Lightning port.
    Reports of a portless iPhone have also been scarce since then, with recent insights and
    suggesting Apple may be developing .

    Apple’s MagSafe Battery Pack charges the iPhone 12 Pro Max wirelessly.
    Patrick Holland/CNET
    The iPhone is becoming less reliant on wired connections
    It’s uncertain whether
    Apple will ever release a truly wireless iPhone. But what is clear
    is that the iPhone has become increasingly well-equipped to function without any
    cables. 

    "The number of systems that actually 100% must have a cable are diminishing," Nick Maynard,
    head of research for Juniper Research, said in a previous interview.

    The debut of
    in 2016 was perhaps the biggest catalyst for ditching wired
    connections. Although Apple’s decision to eliminate the headphone jack was somewhat
    controversial back then, the industry has been quick to embrace the
    shift to wireless earbuds. 

    After Apple said goodbye to the headphone jack, many other smartphone makers,
    including Samsung, followed suit. Now, global shipments of true wireless earbuds have
    reached 68.2 million units in the first quarter of 2022 alone,
    growing by 17%, according to market research firm .
    AirPods are the top seller. 

    But AirPods’ popularity isn’t the only sign of the iPhone’s independence from wires.

    Apple also launched a new type of cable-free connection mechanism for
    the iPhone called MagSafe in 2020 with the .

    MagSafe, not to
    be confused with the MacBook charger of the same name, uses an array of magnets to
    more easily snap wireless chargers and other accessories to
    the back of compatible iPhone models. MagSafe chargers can also power up the iPhone
    12 and iPhone 13 than . Ther, which is a series of flat circular metal contacts located on the
    back of some iPad Pro models, is another example of Apple’s efforts
    to make its products less reliant on cables. 

    Newer technologies like ultra wideband have
    also made it easier for the iPhone to communicate with other devices wirelessly.
    UWB is a wireless protocol that uses radio signals to pinpoint a device’s location, as
    my colleague . Although its primary use today
    is for pinpointing the location of belongings like your
    phone or car keys, it also could be useful for its original intended use : high-speed wireless data transfer.
    That could potentially further reduce the need for a Lightning port.

    Wireless charging isn’t as fast as wired charging. 
    Apple
    The challenges that come with a completely wireless iPhone
    The
    biggest argument against a port-free iPhone is that wireless chargers still don’t work as quickly as regular wired chargers.

    Standard Qi wireless chargers will replenish the iPhone’s battery at a
    rate of 7.5 watts, while Apple’s MagSafe connector can charge at a
    rate of up to 15 watts. But the iPhone 8 and newer models that replenishes 50% of the device’s battery in 30 minutes.
    However, you’ll need a wired connection to a compatible 20-watt power adapter to
    get those speeds. That’s certainly an improvement over wireless charging, but it’s still slower than the charging speeds offered by Android rivals like
    OnePlus. 

    Those who don’t already own a wireless charger may also
    have to buy one separately if Apple releases an iPhone without ports.
    Apple stopped including power adapters in the iPhone’s packaging with the iPhone 12, but it still
    offers Lightning cables in the box. If it switches to USB-C
    in the near future, it’ll likely include those cables in the
    box instead. Apple’s MagSafe charger is priced at $39,
    but there are also non-Apple chargers with the company’s .
    However, you also likely need a 20-watt USB-C power adapter to get the fastest charging speed.
    (Apple says power delivery will vary depending on the power adapter’s wattage and system conditions.)

    Even with these
    caveats, wireless charging has become ubiquitous on modern smartphones.

    Compatible chargers also aren’t as expensive as they were five years ago, strengthening the case for a completely wireless
    iPhone. For example, third-party wireless chargers can be for less
    than $20.

    An iPhone connected over
    a MagSafe charger to a MacBook.
    Patrick Holland/CNET
    But Gene Munster, a managing partner at Loup Ventures, thinks there are bigger improvements to be made when it comes to charging phones without a cable.
    He envisions a future in which smartphones can be charged
    completely wirelessly without having to make contact with a
    charging pad. 

    Munster said his firm has met with private companies who are
    working on technologies like this, but cautioned that it’s in its
    early stages. Apple has also filed a patent application hinting that it’s considered technology that can .
    , a Washington-based tech company, has also developed a charging system that it claims can power up electronic devices from a distance using RF antenna technology. 

    "Imagine never having to think about charging your phone is the goal," Munster said in a previous interview. 

    If Apple does have its sights
    set on true wireless charging, it likely won’t arrive in the
    iPhone anytime soon. It’s also unclear if Apple will ever release a completely portless iPhone, considering USB-C is looking like
    the most likely Lightning successor. 

    Apple has also
    seemingly walked back its stance on reducing
    the amount of connections in its MacBook Pro laptops recently.
    The 2021 MacBook Pro has an SD card permainan slot mudah menang and an HDMI port, which
    means it has than we’ve seen on Apple’s laptops in years.

    (The newer 13-inch M2-powered MacBook Pro, however, only includes two Thunderbolt/USB 4 ports.)

    But the
    idea of an iPhone that can function without wired cables certainly
    seems to align with Apple’s vision from 2016.
    As Apple’s former design chief Jony Ive said when describing the headphone jackless iPhone 7’s design, the company’s "obsession remains to continuously simplify and improve." If done right,
    an iPhone with no charging ports could accomplish just that.

  • Ocado shares soared by more than a third on Tuesday as the online
    grocer agreed a partnership with one of South Korea’s biggest firms to expand its online business.
    Lotte Group, whose interests span sectors ranging from industrial
    chemicals to hotels and confectionery, will work with the British grocery giant to build a set of
    ’customer fulfilment centres’ serving its biggest retail division. 
    Under
    the agreement, the pair plan to build six CFCs across a number of countries
    by 2028, with the first becoming operational in three years’ time.
    Tie-up : Seoul-based
    Lotte Group has struck a new partnership with Ocado
    to expand its online business, including building a new network of ’customer fulfilment centres’
    From 2024, Ocado’s
    in-store fulfilment technology will also be rolled out across Lotte
    Shopping stores, which number more than 1,000 and produce an annual turnover of £9.5billion. 
    Based in Seoul,
    Lotte is South Korea’s fifth-largest ’chaebol,’ which are major industrial conglomerates that control most of the country’s economy, are
    often family-run and have significant influence over its political system. 
    Its new tie-up with Ocado makes it the 12th
    major retailer to become a partner of the grocery firm, alongside the likes of Morrisons in the UK, American supermarket operator Kroger
    and Australia’s second-largest retailer Coles. 
    RELATED ARTICLES
    Share this article Share In recent years, Ocado’s warehouses have become renowned for their automation technology, with robots picking
    out customer orders from a 3D grid of crates before being bagged for transport.
    The firm said the fees they will
    receive from Lotte would be ’similar to those agreed’ with its other global partners.

    Some cash with be paid upfront and during
    development, then payments will be linked to overall revenues and installed capacity.

    It will not count cash
    fees as part of revenues until operations are up and running, while it expects the tie-up to have a ’negligible’ effect on earnings this
    financial year.
    Luke Jensen, the chief executive of Ocado Solutions, said :
    ’South Korea is among the most developed and dynamic
    markets for grocery e-commerce in the world.
    ’Lotte is a powerhouse grocery player in the market, with deep connections to its customers and the ambition to dominate the e-commerce channel
    in grocery.

    We can’t wait to introduce a game-changing proposition to Korean shoppers with
    Lotte.’ 
    skyrocketed by 38.6 per cent to 654.6p on Tuesday, making it the
    top riser by some distance on the FTSE 100 Index.
    However, the relative absence of restrictions
    and rising concerns about cost-of-living pressures has caused the company’s shares to decline significantly in value
    since the middle of last year and around 60 per cent in 2022 alone.
    Victoria Scholar, the head of investment at Interactive Investor, said the tie-up was a ’smart opportunistic move from Ocado that will allow the business to
    gain a foothold in an important growing economy.’
    But she warned :
    ’The big question is whether Ocado’s partnerships can turn it into a profitable
    business that returns cash to shareholders.
    ’This time last year, its valuation reflected that of a high-growth tech business. 
    ’However,
    given its ongoing struggles with profitability, the shift
    in preference among investors away from technology, as well as the cost-of-living crisis that is squeezing consumers, Ocado’s share price has fallen drastically.’

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  • and appear to have been jibed by former This Morning host
    Fern Britton over the recent ’queue jumping’ row to see the Queen lying in state at Westminster Hall on Friday.
    With reports the five-mile long queue
    had been closed for six hours that day, boosting the wait time
    to ’at least 14 hours’, the presenters were said to have joined a separate queue and
    were taken into a press gallery to film for the programme.
    Fern,
    65, who fronted the daytime show with Phillip, 60, between 2002
    and 2009, wrote in a Friday post, ’There’s a VIP queue ?’
    while Eamonn, 62, liked a tweet from a fan asking if he
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    Ouch :
     Phillip Schofield and Holly Willoughby have been jibed by ex
    This Morning host Fern Britton over their ’queue jumping’ row to see Queen lying in state - with Eamonn
    Holmes calling for a return to the ITV show 
    Following the controversy, the admirer had written : ’Does this mean we can have @EamonnHolmes and @RuthieeL back on @thismorning please ?!’
    This Morning producers were forced to deny hosts Holly and Phil had ’VIP access’ as
    they filmed a segment for the programme.
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    The TV duo cut sombre figures as they dressed
    in black and visited the Queen’s coffin to
    film for the upcoming episode which is due to air
    on Tuesday, the day after the late monarch’s state funeral.
    On Saturday evening, ITV
    bosses bosses posted a statement on Instagram which denied the pair had received special treatment : ’Hello everyone, we would like to clarify something,’ it read.
    Old pals : Eamonn and Fern are pictured on This Morning in 2018
    ’We asked
    Phillip and Holly to be part of a film for this Tuesday’s programme.
    ’They did
    not jump the queue, have VIP access or file past the Queen lying in state - but instead were
    there in a professional capacity as part
    of the world’s media to report on the event.’
    An ITV spokesperson added in a statement to MailOnline :
    ’This Morning had press accreditation and like other media,
    Phillip and Holly were escorted to work from the press gallery by government
    staff. 
    ’They did not file past The Queen’s coffin. They were
    there alongside a host of other broadcasters and national press
    outlets for an item that will be broadcast on Tuesday’s show.
    Any allegations of improper behaviour are categorically untrue.’


    Fuming : Fern, 65, wrote in a Friday Twitter post,
    ’There’s a VIP queue ?’ while Eamonn, 62, liked a tweet from
    a fan asking if he and wife Ruth Langford could return to their Friday slot
    The broadcasters donned
    all black ensembles, with Holly, 41, in a face mask, as they made their way into the historic building where the late monarch was lying in state following her death last week. 
    A source told MailOnline : ’They did not get to pay their respects
    to the Queen in the same way as queuing members of the
    public but they filmed in a section put aside for press. 
    ’This Morning’s Friday
    show has been cancelled in favour of rolling ITV news coverage in the lead-up to the Queen’s state funeral.
    The programme will be back on screens on Tuesday.’
    Representatives
    for Fern and Eamonn have been contacted for comment by MailOnline. 
    Back then : Fern fronted the daytime show with Phillip, 60, between 2002 and 2009 (pictured in 2005)
    It comes
    after their fellow ITV daytime star Susanna Reid queued for more than seven hours to view the Queen’s coffin on its first day being
    on public view at Westminster Hall the day
    before.
    Unlike Holly and Phil, she was not in attendance in a work
    capacity and went with family members who would not have been permitted to go into
    the press gallery. 
    The Good Morning
    Britain host, 51, took to Twitter to announce that she and her mother Sue had paid their
    respects to the late monarch as she lay in state.
    It is estimated the number of people set to make the
    trip could hit more than 350,000, with people from all over
    the world expected to visit London to pay their respects.
    Happier times : Eamonn (bottom right) co-hosted Friday instalments of This Morning for 15 years with Ruth (bottom left).
    They also covered for Phil and Holly (both top) during the holidays
    [pictured in 2020]
    Earlier this year, Eamonn launched a blistering attack
    on ITV, branding the broadcaster ’sly’ and accusing it of hypocrisy over its diversity
    drive.
    The veteran TV presenter also took aim at Phillip
    in an interview with the Daily Mail’s Weekend magazine, calling him ’passive-aggressive’ and
    claiming he has a habit of ’snubbing people’.
    He co-hosted ITV’s Friday instalment of
    This Morning for 15 years with his wife Ruth. They also covered for Phil and Holly during the holidays.
    But the longstanding TV
    couple were replaced by Alison Hammond and Dermot O’Leary in 2021.
    Historical moment : It is estimated the number of people set to make the trip
    could hit more than 350,000, with people from all over the world expected to visit London to pay their respects 
    Eamonn, who now presents the breakfast show at GB News with co-host Isabel Webster, accused ITV bosses
    of making it look as if he had walked away when in fact he had ’no
    idea’ why he was being relieved of the slot.
    Television presenter
    Fern co-hosted This Morning with Phil in the 00s
    before the pair famously fell out ahead of her departure.
    Fern was half way through her
    £1.5 million contract with ITV when she handed in her notice
    in 2009 after seven years on This Morning with Phillip.
    It was
    claimed at the time she felt ’undervalued by ITV’ and that
    she was ’living in Phil’s shadow’.
    Dedicated :
     Susanna Reid (right) queued for over seven hours to view
    the Queen’s coffin for its first day being on public view at Westminster Hall
    on Thursday
    It was also reported Fern was being paid £250,000 a year less than Phil and that he was earning three times
    her salary when they were fronting Mr and Mrs together from 2008 to 2010.
    Phil is said to have banked £45,000 an hour while Fern earned just £15,000.
    However, Fern denied she left ITV
    because of her salary and upon her departure she mentioned the whole This Morning team rather than just Phillip.
    Four years after her departure,
    Phillip admitted he and Fern no longer spoke.
    He told magazine in 2013 :
    ’We were involved in the show and mates at the time, but
    we don’t really [speak]. I see Phil [Fern’s then-husband, chef Phil Vickery] when he’s in This
    Morning... But we’re not in touch now.’
    Their side :
     On Saturday evening, ITV bosses bosses posted a statement on Instagram which denied
    the pair had received special treatment
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