Genre en action

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Militantisme, genre et féminisme en Afrique du Sud

jeudi 9 octobre 2014

Après 20 ans de démocratie, où en est-on en termes d’égalités de genre ? La nouvelle Constitution sud-africaine assure une égalité et une justice sociale pour toutes et tous, notamment en termes de genre et de sexualités. Pourtant les violences de genre sont des plus fortes au monde.

Voici le mémoire d’une étudiante, Anne-Christelle Roullé, réalisé en 2014 sous la direction d’Elisabeth Hoffman (membre fondatrice de Genre en Action).

Titre : Militantisme, genre et féminisme : réalités, postures et pratiques dans les ONG qui soutiennent les mouvements sociaux dans la "démocratie" sud-africaine
Auteure : Anne-Christelle Roullé
Université : Mémoire de Licence professionnelle « chargé-e de projets de solidarité internationale et développement durable » Institut d’aménagement, de tourisme et d’urbanisme, Université Bordeaux Montaigne (2014)


Le « genre » est devenu, d’une certaine manière, une priorité dans la « démocratie » sud-africaine. Des ONG intègrent une approche genre dans leur organisation interne, leurs programmes et activités. Mais cette approche a ses limites et ne s’inscrit pas systématiquement dans une perspective féministe plus large.

Le contexte patriarcal, capitaliste, post-colonial et post-apartheid de l’Afrique du Sud en fait un pays extrême où les rapports de domination de sexe, de « race » et de classe s’imbriquent les uns aux autres. Dans ce contexte, de multiples ONG existent et prennent le relais de l’Etat pour lutter contre les inégalités, dans une volonté de transformation sociale.

Certaines ONG, comme ILRIG, réfutent l’assistance comme moyen d’action et privilégient l’accompagnement des mouvements sociaux. Les professionnel-le-s qui y travaillent sont avant tout des militant-e-s qui questionnent leurs postures et pratiques et cherchent à aller dans le sens d’une émancipation des populations défavorisées. L’éducation populaire devient une clé politique et apporte une légitimité à l’action sociale entreprise par ces ONG.

Note d’intention de l’auteure

"La période coloniale du 19e siècle a divisé le monde entre des pays colonisateurs et des pays colonisés. Ces rapports de domination entre les pays dits « des Nords » (ex-colonisateurs) et ceux « des Suds » (ex-colonisés) perdurent, bien que les relations internationales se soient complexifiées au point de devoir revoir cette découpe manichéenne.

Cependant, on retrouve ces rapports de domination à de multiples niveaux, notamment dans le système éducatif et littéraire. Les écrits et auteur-e-s « des Nords » sont largement valorisés aux dépens de celleux « des Suds ». Ainsi, pour ce mémoire, j’ai essayé de favoriser des sources bibliographiques « des Suds », ou qui intègrent au mieux cette dimension, en essayant de mêler sources académiques et militantes."

Anne-Christelle Roullé


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